Wow! It wasn't easy, so congratulations! Now, there may be examples where the same table is used in the main query as well as in the correlated subquery. Try to find out what the following example returns:
FROM city main_city
WHERE population > (
FROM city average_city
WHERE average_city.country_id = main_city.country_id
In this example, we want to find cities with the population greater than the average population in all cities of the specific country. The problem is that we look for cities in the main clause and check the average population value for cities in the subquery. The same table appears twice - no good.
This is why we must use aliases for tables. Take a look: in the subquery we put
... FROM city average_city ... and in the main query
... FROM city main_city. As you can see, we gave new temporary names for the table
city, different for the main query and for the subquery. The temporary name (the so-called alias) is put after the table name, separated with a space. No commas here, remember!